霉菌产生小孢子来繁殖. 霉菌孢子不断地在室内外空气中飘荡. 当霉菌孢子落在室内潮湿的地方, they may begin growing and digesting whatever they are growing on in order to survive. 有些霉菌可以在木头、纸张、地毯和食物上生长. 当过多的湿气或水积聚在室内时, 霉菌生长是经常发生的, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or un-addressed. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.
浸水后霉菌的生长可能是一个问题. 环境保护署的简报: 洪水清理:避免室内空气质量问题- discusses steps to take when cleaning and repairing a home after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for microorganisms. This fact sheet provides tips to avoid creating indoor air quality problems during cleanup. U.S. EPA文件编号402-F-93-005, 1993年8月.
有些人对霉菌很敏感. 对这些人来说, 接触霉菌会导致鼻塞等症状, 眼睛刺激性, 喘息, 或皮肤过敏. Some people, such as those with serious allergies to molds, may have more severe reactions. Severe reactions may occur among workers exposed to large amounts of molds in occupational settings, 比如在发霉的干草周围工作的农民. 严重的反应可能包括发烧和呼吸急促. 一些患有慢性肺病的人, 比如阻塞性肺病, 可能会在肺部感染霉菌.
环保署的出版物, 室内空气污染:卫生专业人员的介绍, assists health professionals (especially the primary care physician) in the diagnosis of patient symptoms that could be related to an indoor air pollution problem. It addresses the health problems that may be caused by contaminants encountered daily in the home and office. Organized according to pollutant or pollutant groups such as environmental tobacco smoke, 挥发性有机化合物的仪器, 生物污染物, 以及病态建筑综合症, this booklet lists key signs and symptoms from exposure to these pollutants, 提供诊断检查表和快速参考摘要, 并包括补救行动的建议. 它还包括每个部分中包含的信息参考. This booklet was developed by the American Lung Association, the American Medical Association, the U.S. 消费者产品安全委员会和环保局. EPA文件参考编号402-R-94-007, 1994.
过敏反应-摘自 室内空气污染:卫生专业人员的介绍 动物皮屑，霉菌，尘螨，其他生物.
"A major concern associated with exposure to 生物污染物 is allergic reactions, 从鼻炎到什么范围, 鼻塞, 结膜炎症, 荨麻疹和哮喘. Notable triggers for these diseases are allergens derived from house dust mites; other arthropods, including cockroaches; pets (cats, 狗, 鸟, rodents); molds; and protein-containing furnishings, 包括羽毛, 木棉, 等. 在职业环境中，更不寻常的过敏原(例如.g.细菌酶，藻类)已经引起了哮喘的流行. Probably most proteins of non-human origin can cause 哮喘 in a subset of any appropriately exposed population."
环保局的出版物，一个简单的指南，霉菌，水分，和你的家”, 西班牙语 (PDF, 20 pp, 799kb). This Guide provides information and guidance for homeowners and renters on how to clean up residential mold problems and how to prevent mold growth.
家中的生物污染物 -本文档解释了室内生物污染, 生物污染物对健康的影响, 以及如何控制它们的生长和积累. One third to one-half of all structures have damp conditions that may encourage the development of pollutants such as molds and bacteria, which can cause allergic reactions -- including 哮喘 -- and spread infectious diseases. Describes corrective measures for achieving moisture control and cleanliness. 这本小册子由美国肺脏协会和美国肺脏协会共同编写.S. 消费品安全委员会. 该出版物于1997年由消费品安全委员会更新
水分控制是模具控制的关键, the 湿度控制 Section from 家中的生物污染物 follows:
家里的水可以来自很多来源. Water can enter your home by leaking or by seeping through basement floors. 淋浴甚至做饭都会增加家里的空气湿度. The amount of moisture that the air in your home can hold depends on the temperature of the air. 随着温度下降，空气中的水分就会减少. 这就是为什么, 在寒冷的天气, 水分凝结在冷的表面上(例如), 水滴在窗户里面形成). 这种湿气会促进生物污染物的生长.
Your humidistat is set too high if excessive moisture collects on windows and other cold surfaces. Excess humidity for a prolonged time can damage walls especially when outdoor air temperatures are very low. 多余的水分凝结在窗玻璃上，因为玻璃是冷的. Other sources of excess moisture besides overuse of a humidifier may be long showers, 其他用途的自来水, 在烹饪中煮或蒸, 植物, 和在室内烘干衣服. 一个紧密的, energy-efficient house holds more moisture inside; you may need to run a kitchen or bath ventilating fan sometimes, 或者短暂地打开一扇窗户. Storm windows and caulking around windows keep the interior glass warmer and reduce condensation of moisture there.
增湿器 are not recommended for use in buildings without proper vapor barriers because of potential damage from moisture buildup. Consult a building contractor to determine the adequacy of the vapor barrier in your house. 用一个湿度指示器来测量你房子的相对湿度. The American Society of 加热 and 空调 Engineers (ASHRAE) recommends these maximum indoor humidity levels.
来源:安妮领域, 扩展专业, 名誉, 参考家用电器制造商协会(http://www.aham.org/).
Mold and mildew are commonly found on the exterior wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating climate locations. An exposed corner room is likely to be significantly colder than adjoining rooms so that it has a higher relative humidity (RH) than other rooms at the same water vapor pressure. 如果在角落的房间里发现霉菌和霉菌的生长, 房间表面附近的相对湿度高于70%. 然而, is the RH above 70% at the surfaces because the room is too cold or because there is too much moisture present (high water vapor pressure)?
The amount of moisture in the room can be estimated by measuring both temperature and RH at the same location and at the same time. 假设有两种情况. In the first case, assume that the RH is 30% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room. The low RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure (or absolute humidity) is low. 高相对湿度可能是由于房间表面“太冷”.“温度是主要因素, and control strategies should involve increasing the temperature at cold room surfaces.
In the second case, assume that the RH is 50% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room. The higher RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure is high and there is a relatively large amount of moisture in the air. 表面相对湿度高可能是由于空气“太潮湿”.“湿度是主要因素, and control strategies should involve decreasing the moisture content of the indoor air.
你应该打扫家里的通风管道吗? -管道清洗和模具的摘录, please review the entire document for additional information on duct cleaning and mold.
在坚硬的表面内有大量可见的霉菌生长.g., sheet metal) ducts or on other components of your heating and cooling system. There are several important points to understand concerning mold detection in heating and cooling systems:
Standards or Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for airborne concentrations of mold, 或霉菌孢子, 尚未设置. Currently, there are no EPA regulations or standards for airborne mold contaminants.